The chemistry of life is commonly associated to a handful of elements, usually identified with the mnemonic acronym CHNOPS, summarizing the key elements of organic chemistry. However, surprisingly, this small list is much shorter than is believed. The human body contains at least 60 detectable chemical elements and about 25 of them play a role in its healthy functioning. Moreover, more than 45 elements (including radionuclides) are used as metallodrugs in diagnostics or in therapy. A journey through the periodic table will provide an overview of the elements, their role in the living organism and the application of their compounds in medicine.